ROS2 Intermediate Cheetsheet

Managing Dependencies with rosdep

https://github.com/ros/rosdistro

  • For dependencies only used in testing the code (e.g. gtest), use test_depend.
  • For dependencies only used in building the code, use build_depend.
  • For dependencies needed by headers the code exports, use build_export_depend.
  • For dependencies only used when running the code, use exec_depend.
  • For mixed purposes, use depend, which covers build, export, and execution time dependencies.
sudo rosdep init
rosdep update
rosdep install --from-paths src -y --ignore-src

Creating an action

int32 order
---
int32[] sequence
---
int32[] partial_sequence
<?xml version="1.0"?>
<?xml-model href="http://download.ros.org/schema/package_format3.xsd" schematypens="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema"?>
<package format="3">
  <name>action_tutorials_interfaces</name>
  <version>0.0.0</version>
  <description>TODO: Package description</description>
  <maintainer email="[email protected]">shiming</maintainer>
  <license>TODO: License declaration</license>

  <buildtool_depend>ament_cmake</buildtool_depend>

  <buildtool_depend>rosidl_default_generators</buildtool_depend>

  <depend>action_msgs</depend>

  <member_of_group>rosidl_interface_packages</member_of_group>

  <test_depend>ament_lint_auto</test_depend>
  <test_depend>ament_lint_common</test_depend>

  <export>
    <build_type>ament_cmake</build_type>
  </export>
</package>
cmake_minimum_required(VERSION 3.5)
project(action_tutorials_interfaces)

# Default to C99
if(NOT CMAKE_C_STANDARD)
  set(CMAKE_C_STANDARD 99)
endif()

# Default to C++14
if(NOT CMAKE_CXX_STANDARD)
  set(CMAKE_CXX_STANDARD 14)
endif()

if(CMAKE_COMPILER_IS_GNUCXX OR CMAKE_CXX_COMPILER_ID MATCHES "Clang")
  add_compile_options(-Wall -Wextra -Wpedantic)
endif()

# find dependencies
find_package(ament_cmake REQUIRED)
# uncomment the following section in order to fill in
# further dependencies manually.
# find_package(<dependency> REQUIRED)
find_package(rosidl_default_generators REQUIRED)

rosidl_generate_interfaces(${PROJECT_NAME}
  "action/Fibonacci.action"
)

if(BUILD_TESTING)
  find_package(ament_lint_auto REQUIRED)
  # the following line skips the linter which checks for copyrights
  # uncomment the line when a copyright and license is not present in all source files
  #set(ament_cmake_copyright_FOUND TRUE)
  # the following line skips cpplint (only works in a git repo)
  # uncomment the line when this package is not in a git repo
  #set(ament_cmake_cpplint_FOUND TRUE)
  ament_lint_auto_find_test_dependencies()
endif()

ament_package()

Writing an action server and client (C++)

#ifndef ACTION_TUTORIALS_CPP__VISIBILITY_CONTROL_H_
#define ACTION_TUTORIALS_CPP__VISIBILITY_CONTROL_H_

#ifdef __cplusplus
extern "C"
{
#endif

// This logic was borrowed (then namespaced) from the examples on the gcc wiki:
//     https://gcc.gnu.org/wiki/Visibility

#if defined _WIN32 || defined __CYGWIN__
  #ifdef __GNUC__
    #define ACTION_TUTORIALS_CPP_EXPORT __attribute__ ((dllexport))
    #define ACTION_TUTORIALS_CPP_IMPORT __attribute__ ((dllimport))
  #else
    #define ACTION_TUTORIALS_CPP_EXPORT __declspec(dllexport)
    #define ACTION_TUTORIALS_CPP_IMPORT __declspec(dllimport)
  #endif
  #ifdef ACTION_TUTORIALS_CPP_BUILDING_DLL
    #define ACTION_TUTORIALS_CPP_PUBLIC ACTION_TUTORIALS_CPP_EXPORT
  #else
    #define ACTION_TUTORIALS_CPP_PUBLIC ACTION_TUTORIALS_CPP_IMPORT
  #endif
  #define ACTION_TUTORIALS_CPP_PUBLIC_TYPE ACTION_TUTORIALS_CPP_PUBLIC
  #define ACTION_TUTORIALS_CPP_LOCAL
#else
  #define ACTION_TUTORIALS_CPP_EXPORT __attribute__ ((visibility("default")))
  #define ACTION_TUTORIALS_CPP_IMPORT
  #if __GNUC__ >= 4
    #define ACTION_TUTORIALS_CPP_PUBLIC __attribute__ ((visibility("default")))
    #define ACTION_TUTORIALS_CPP_LOCAL  __attribute__ ((visibility("hidden")))
  #else
    #define ACTION_TUTORIALS_CPP_PUBLIC
    #define ACTION_TUTORIALS_CPP_LOCAL
  #endif
  #define ACTION_TUTORIALS_CPP_PUBLIC_TYPE
#endif

#ifdef __cplusplus
}
#endif

#endif  // ACTION_TUTORIALS_CPP__VISIBILITY_CONTROL_H_
#include <functional>
#include <memory>
#include <thread>

#include "action_tutorials_interfaces/action/fibonacci.hpp"
#include "rclcpp/rclcpp.hpp"
#include "rclcpp_action/rclcpp_action.hpp"
#include "rclcpp_components/register_node_macro.hpp"

#include "action_tutorials_cpp/visibility_control.h"

namespace action_tutorials_cpp
{
class FibonacciActionServer : public rclcpp::Node
{
public:
  using Fibonacci = action_tutorials_interfaces::action::Fibonacci;
  using GoalHandleFibonacci = rclcpp_action::ServerGoalHandle<Fibonacci>;

  ACTION_TUTORIALS_CPP_PUBLIC
  explicit FibonacciActionServer(const rclcpp::NodeOptions & options = rclcpp::NodeOptions())
  : Node("fibonacci_action_server", options)
  {
    using namespace std::placeholders;

    this->action_server_ = rclcpp_action::create_server<Fibonacci>(
      this,
      "fibonacci",
      std::bind(&FibonacciActionServer::handle_goal, this, _1, _2),
      std::bind(&FibonacciActionServer::handle_cancel, this, _1),
      std::bind(&FibonacciActionServer::handle_accepted, this, _1));
  }

private:
  rclcpp_action::Server<Fibonacci>::SharedPtr action_server_;

  rclcpp_action::GoalResponse handle_goal(
    const rclcpp_action::GoalUUID & uuid,
    std::shared_ptr<const Fibonacci::Goal> goal)
  {
    RCLCPP_INFO(this->get_logger(), "Received goal request with order %d", goal->order);
    (void)uuid;
    return rclcpp_action::GoalResponse::ACCEPT_AND_EXECUTE;
  }

  rclcpp_action::CancelResponse handle_cancel(
    const std::shared_ptr<GoalHandleFibonacci> goal_handle)
  {
    RCLCPP_INFO(this->get_logger(), "Received request to cancel goal");
    (void)goal_handle;
    return rclcpp_action::CancelResponse::ACCEPT;
  }

  void handle_accepted(const std::shared_ptr<GoalHandleFibonacci> goal_handle)
  {
    using namespace std::placeholders;
    // this needs to return quickly to avoid blocking the executor, so spin up a new thread
    std::thread{std::bind(&FibonacciActionServer::execute, this, _1), goal_handle}.detach();
  }

  void execute(const std::shared_ptr<GoalHandleFibonacci> goal_handle)
  {
    RCLCPP_INFO(this->get_logger(), "Executing goal");
    rclcpp::Rate loop_rate(1);
    const auto goal = goal_handle->get_goal();
    auto feedback = std::make_shared<Fibonacci::Feedback>();
    auto & sequence = feedback->partial_sequence;
    sequence.push_back(0);
    sequence.push_back(1);
    auto result = std::make_shared<Fibonacci::Result>();

    for (int i = 1; (i < goal->order) && rclcpp::ok(); ++i) {
      // Check if there is a cancel request
      if (goal_handle->is_canceling()) {
        result->sequence = sequence;
        goal_handle->canceled(result);
        RCLCPP_INFO(this->get_logger(), "Goal canceled");
        return;
      }
      // Update sequence
      sequence.push_back(sequence[i] + sequence[i - 1]);
      // Publish feedback
      goal_handle->publish_feedback(feedback);
      RCLCPP_INFO(this->get_logger(), "Publish feedback");

      loop_rate.sleep();
    }

    // Check if goal is done
    if (rclcpp::ok()) {
      result->sequence = sequence;
      goal_handle->succeed(result);
      RCLCPP_INFO(this->get_logger(), "Goal succeeded");
    }
  }
};  // class FibonacciActionServer

}  // namespace action_tutorials_cpp

RCLCPP_COMPONENTS_REGISTER_NODE(action_tutorials_cpp::FibonacciActionServer)
#include <functional>
#include <future>
#include <memory>
#include <string>
#include <sstream>

#include "action_tutorials_interfaces/action/fibonacci.hpp"

#include "rclcpp/rclcpp.hpp"
#include "rclcpp_action/rclcpp_action.hpp"
#include "rclcpp_components/register_node_macro.hpp"

namespace action_tutorials_cpp
{
class FibonacciActionClient : public rclcpp::Node
{
public:
  using Fibonacci = action_tutorials_interfaces::action::Fibonacci;
  using GoalHandleFibonacci = rclcpp_action::ClientGoalHandle<Fibonacci>;

  explicit FibonacciActionClient(const rclcpp::NodeOptions & options)
  : Node("fibonacci_action_client", options)
  {
    this->client_ptr_ = rclcpp_action::create_client<Fibonacci>(
      this,
      "fibonacci");

    this->timer_ = this->create_wall_timer(
      std::chrono::milliseconds(500),
      std::bind(&FibonacciActionClient::send_goal, this));
  }

  void send_goal()
  {
    using namespace std::placeholders;

    this->timer_->cancel();

    if (!this->client_ptr_->wait_for_action_server()) {
      RCLCPP_ERROR(this->get_logger(), "Action server not available after waiting");
      rclcpp::shutdown();
    }

    auto goal_msg = Fibonacci::Goal();
    goal_msg.order = 10;

    RCLCPP_INFO(this->get_logger(), "Sending goal");

    auto send_goal_options = rclcpp_action::Client<Fibonacci>::SendGoalOptions();
    send_goal_options.goal_response_callback =
      std::bind(&FibonacciActionClient::goal_response_callback, this, _1);
    send_goal_options.feedback_callback =
      std::bind(&FibonacciActionClient::feedback_callback, this, _1, _2);
    send_goal_options.result_callback =
      std::bind(&FibonacciActionClient::result_callback, this, _1);
    this->client_ptr_->async_send_goal(goal_msg, send_goal_options);
  }

private:
  rclcpp_action::Client<Fibonacci>::SharedPtr client_ptr_;
  rclcpp::TimerBase::SharedPtr timer_;

  void goal_response_callback(std::shared_future<GoalHandleFibonacci::SharedPtr> future)
  {
    auto goal_handle = future.get();
    if (!goal_handle) {
      RCLCPP_ERROR(this->get_logger(), "Goal was rejected by server");
    } else {
      RCLCPP_INFO(this->get_logger(), "Goal accepted by server, waiting for result");
    }
  }

  void feedback_callback(
    GoalHandleFibonacci::SharedPtr,
    const std::shared_ptr<const Fibonacci::Feedback> feedback)
  {
    std::stringstream ss;
    ss << "Next number in sequence received: ";
    for (auto number : feedback->partial_sequence) {
      ss << number << " ";
    }
    RCLCPP_INFO(this->get_logger(), ss.str().c_str());
  }

  void result_callback(const GoalHandleFibonacci::WrappedResult & result)
  {
    switch (result.code) {
      case rclcpp_action::ResultCode::SUCCEEDED:
        break;
      case rclcpp_action::ResultCode::ABORTED:
        RCLCPP_ERROR(this->get_logger(), "Goal was aborted");
        return;
      case rclcpp_action::ResultCode::CANCELED:
        RCLCPP_ERROR(this->get_logger(), "Goal was canceled");
        return;
      default:
        RCLCPP_ERROR(this->get_logger(), "Unknown result code");
        return;
    }
    std::stringstream ss;
    ss << "Result received: ";
    for (auto number : result.result->sequence) {
      ss << number << " ";
    }
    RCLCPP_INFO(this->get_logger(), ss.str().c_str());
    rclcpp::shutdown();
  }
};  // class FibonacciActionClient

}  // namespace action_tutorials_cpp

RCLCPP_COMPONENTS_REGISTER_NODE(action_tutorials_cpp::FibonacciActionClient)
cmake_minimum_required(VERSION 3.5)
project(action_tutorials_cpp)

# Default to C99
if(NOT CMAKE_C_STANDARD)
  set(CMAKE_C_STANDARD 99)
endif()

# Default to C++14
if(NOT CMAKE_CXX_STANDARD)
  set(CMAKE_CXX_STANDARD 14)
endif()

if(CMAKE_COMPILER_IS_GNUCXX OR CMAKE_CXX_COMPILER_ID MATCHES "Clang")
  add_compile_options(-Wall -Wextra -Wpedantic)
endif()

# find dependencies
find_package(ament_cmake REQUIRED)
find_package(action_tutorials_interfaces REQUIRED)
find_package(rclcpp REQUIRED)
find_package(rclcpp_action REQUIRED)
find_package(rclcpp_components REQUIRED)

add_library(action_client SHARED
  src/fibonacci_action_client.cpp)
target_include_directories(action_client PRIVATE
  $<BUILD_INTERFACE:${CMAKE_CURRENT_SOURCE_DIR}/include>
  $<INSTALL_INTERFACE:include>)
target_compile_definitions(action_client
  PRIVATE "ACTION_TUTORIALS_CPP_BUILDING_DLL")
ament_target_dependencies(action_client
  "action_tutorials_interfaces"
  "rclcpp"
  "rclcpp_action"
  "rclcpp_components")
rclcpp_components_register_node(action_client PLUGIN "action_tutorials_cpp::FibonacciActionClient" EXECUTABLE fibonacci_action_client)
install(TARGETS
  action_client
  ARCHIVE DESTINATION lib
  LIBRARY DESTINATION lib
  RUNTIME DESTINATION bin)

add_library(action_server SHARED
  src/fibonacci_action_server.cpp)
target_include_directories(action_server PRIVATE
  $<BUILD_INTERFACE:${CMAKE_CURRENT_SOURCE_DIR}/include>
  $<INSTALL_INTERFACE:include>)
target_compile_definitions(action_server
  PRIVATE "ACTION_TUTORIALS_CPP_BUILDING_DLL")
ament_target_dependencies(action_server
  "action_tutorials_interfaces"
  "rclcpp"
  "rclcpp_action"
  "rclcpp_components")
rclcpp_components_register_node(action_server PLUGIN "action_tutorials_cpp::FibonacciActionServer" EXECUTABLE fibonacci_action_server)
install(TARGETS
  action_server
  ARCHIVE DESTINATION lib
  LIBRARY DESTINATION lib
  RUNTIME DESTINATION bin)

if(BUILD_TESTING)
  find_package(ament_lint_auto REQUIRED)
  # the following line skips the linter which checks for copyrights
  # uncomment the line when a copyright and license is not present in all source files
  #set(ament_cmake_copyright_FOUND TRUE)
  # the following line skips cpplint (only works in a git repo)
  # uncomment the line when this package is not in a git repo
  #set(ament_cmake_cpplint_FOUND TRUE)
  ament_lint_auto_find_test_dependencies()
endif()

ament_package()
<?xml version="1.0"?>
<?xml-model href="http://download.ros.org/schema/package_format3.xsd" schematypens="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema"?>
<package format="3">
  <name>action_tutorials_cpp</name>
  <version>0.0.0</version>
  <description>TODO: Package description</description>
  <maintainer email="[email protected]">shiming</maintainer>
  <license>TODO: License declaration</license>

  <buildtool_depend>ament_cmake</buildtool_depend>

  <depend>action_tutorials_interfaces</depend>
  <depend>rclcpp</depend>
  <depend>rclcpp_action</depend>
  <depend>rclcpp_components</depend>

  <test_depend>ament_lint_auto</test_depend>
  <test_depend>ament_lint_common</test_depend>

  <export>
    <build_type>ament_cmake</build_type>
  </export>
</package>

Writing an action server and client (Python)

#!/usr/bin/env python3
# Copyright 2019 Open Source Robotics Foundation, Inc.
#
# Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License");
# you may not use this file except in compliance with the License.
# You may obtain a copy of the License at
#
#     http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
#
# Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
# distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
# WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
# See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
# limitations under the License.import time

import time

from action_tutorials_interfaces.action import Fibonacci

import rclpy
from rclpy.action import ActionServer
from rclpy.node import Node


class FibonacciActionServer(Node):

    def __init__(self):
        super().__init__('fibonacci_action_server')
        self._action_server = ActionServer(
            self,
            Fibonacci,
            'fibonacci',
            self.execute_callback)

    def execute_callback(self, goal_handle):
        self.get_logger().info('Executing goal...')

        feedback_msg = Fibonacci.Feedback()
        feedback_msg.partial_sequence = [0, 1]

        for i in range(1, goal_handle.request.order):
            feedback_msg.partial_sequence.append(
                feedback_msg.partial_sequence[i] + feedback_msg.partial_sequence[i-1])
            self.get_logger().info('Feedback: {0}'.format(feedback_msg.partial_sequence))
            goal_handle.publish_feedback(feedback_msg)
            time.sleep(1)

        goal_handle.succeed()

        result = Fibonacci.Result()
        result.sequence = feedback_msg.partial_sequence
        return result


def main(args=None):
    rclpy.init(args=args)

    fibonacci_action_server = FibonacciActionServer()

    try:
        rclpy.spin(fibonacci_action_server)
    except KeyboardInterrupt:
        pass


if __name__ == '__main__':
    main()
#!/usr/bin/env python3
# Copyright 2019 Open Source Robotics Foundation, Inc.
#
# Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License");
# you may not use this file except in compliance with the License.
# You may obtain a copy of the License at
#
#     http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
#
# Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
# distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
# WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
# See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
# limitations under the License.

from action_tutorials_interfaces.action import Fibonacci

import rclpy
from rclpy.action import ActionClient
from rclpy.node import Node


class FibonacciActionClient(Node):

    def __init__(self):
        super().__init__('fibonacci_action_client')
        self._action_client = ActionClient(self, Fibonacci, 'fibonacci')

    def send_goal(self, order):
        goal_msg = Fibonacci.Goal()
        goal_msg.order = order

        self._action_client.wait_for_server()

        self._send_goal_future = self._action_client.send_goal_async(
            goal_msg,
            feedback_callback=self.feedback_callback)

        self._send_goal_future.add_done_callback(self.goal_response_callback)

    def goal_response_callback(self, future):
        goal_handle = future.result()

        if not goal_handle.accepted:
            self.get_logger().info('Goal rejected :(')
            return

        self.get_logger().info('Goal accepted :)')

        self._get_result_future = goal_handle.get_result_async()

        self._get_result_future.add_done_callback(self.get_result_callback)

    def get_result_callback(self, future):
        result = future.result().result
        self.get_logger().info('Result: {0}'.format(result.sequence))
        rclpy.shutdown()

    def feedback_callback(self, feedback_msg):
        feedback = feedback_msg.feedback
        self.get_logger().info('Received feedback: {0}'.format(feedback.partial_sequence))


def main(args=None):
    rclpy.init(args=args)

    action_client = FibonacciActionClient()

    action_client.send_goal(10)

    rclpy.spin(action_client)


if __name__ == '__main__':
    main()
from setuptools import setup

package_name = 'action_tutorials_py'

setup(
    name=package_name,
    version='0.0.0',
    packages=[package_name],
    data_files=[
        ('share/ament_index/resource_index/packages',
            ['resource/' + package_name]),
        ('share/' + package_name, ['package.xml']),
    ],
    install_requires=['setuptools'],
    zip_safe=True,
    maintainer='shiming',
    maintainer_email='[email protected]',
    description='Python action tutorial code',
    license='Apache License 2.0',
    tests_require=['pytest'],
    entry_points={
        'console_scripts': [
            'fibonacci_action_server = action_tutorials_py.fibonacci_action_server:main',
            'fibonacci_action_client = action_tutorials_py.fibonacci_action_client:main',
        ],
    },
)
<?xml version="1.0"?>
<?xml-model href="http://download.ros.org/schema/package_format3.xsd" schematypens="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema"?>
<package format="3">
  <name>action_tutorials_py</name>
  <version>0.0.0</version>
  <description>Python action tutorial code</description>
  <maintainer email="[email protected]">shiming</maintainer>
  <license>Apache License 2.0</license>

  <depend>rclpy</depend>
  <depend>action_tutorials_interfaces</depend>

  <test_depend>ament_copyright</test_depend>
  <test_depend>ament_flake8</test_depend>
  <test_depend>ament_pep257</test_depend>
  <test_depend>python3-pytest</test_depend>

  <export>
    <build_type>ament_python</build_type>
  </export>
</package>

发表评论

您的电子邮箱地址不会被公开。 必填项已用*标注

此站点使用Akismet来减少垃圾评论。了解我们如何处理您的评论数据